Metacognition is the knowledge of and regulation of cognition (Tarricone, 2011). 'Meta' is a Greek word meaning after, behind or beyond. Meta is added to cognition to signify a change in emphasis from the flow of cognition to knowledge of cognition (Tarricone, 2011).
The taxonomy of metacognition provides a categorisation of the structure of the construct of metacognition.
The conceptual framework of metacognition is a concept map which presents the key relationships between concepts and metacognition. The conceptual framework does not provide a specific structure of the construct of metacognition but provides an overall concept map view of connections with other concepts. It is intended to be a higher level depiction which provides links to detailed diagrams. For example, clicking on any concept, such as reasoning or self-knowledge, will link to a diagram in another page which presents the relationships of that concept.
Epistemic cognition is knowledge about epistemological matters including knowledge about truth and the justification of beliefs. It is a subset of metacognition but a separate construct in itself.
The purpose of the online tool is to facilitate the understanding of the construct of metacognition, which is fundamental to learning and important for effective teaching. The tool is based on the book titled The Taxonomy of Metacognition authored by Dr Pina Tarricone. The tool consists of two main knowledge representation sections which are taxonomy of metacognition and the conceptual framework of metacognition. The taxonomy of metacognition categorises the construct into two core components, knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition (Tarricone, 2011). The tool is an interactive concept map which aims to help facilitate learning about the construct of metacognition. The tool is a learning structure that allows users to probe within the concept map aspects or components of the construct of metacognition of interest. The tool provides amplifications of the interactions between concepts in the interactive concept map allowing users to learn more about specific conceptual relationships.
The tool provides a zoom in and out function by use of mouse scrolling. The rectangles represent a concept in the conceptual framework of metacognition. They are active and can be clicked on to open the related amplification diagram. It is not intended that the tool is used in a particular way or sequence of steps. It is envisaged that users will be able to navigate through the tool by choosing areas of interest in a somewhat serendipitous way. The amplification diagram provides a navigation snapshot of the location of the concept clicked on in the conceptual framework of metacognition. It also provides navigation to other related concepts which can be clicked on to then link to an amplification of another related concept.
The assertions are descriptions of the relationships or functioning of concepts and their relationship to metacognition. They describe the structure of the taxonomy of metacognition. They also describe the structure of the amplification diagrams which link from the conceptual framework of metacognition. Assertions that have not been included in the tool are found in the book on the specified pages listed on the individual figures. Higher-order assertions provide more information about the structure of the taxonomy and are not included in the tool but are included in the book, The Taxonomy of Metacognition.
The higher-order assertions represent the higher-level theorising and further conceptual analysis of the assertions.
Figure 2.2 - Higher Order Reasoning
Figure 2.3 - Reasoning and Inference
Figure 2.4 - Verbalisation and Reflection
Figure 3.1 - Critical Reflection
Figure 3.2 - Critical Thinking
Figure 4.2 - Metacognition and Reflection
Figure 5.1 - Cognitive Operative System
Figure 5.2 - Metamemory Development
Figure 5.3 - Knowledge of Memory Processes
Figure 5.4 - Knowledge of Memory Processes
Figure 5.5 - Metamemory Judgments
Figure 6.1 - Declarative Metamemory and Procedural Metamemory
Figure 6.2 - Flavell's Taxonomy of Metamemory
Figure 7.1 - Declarative Metamemory
Figure 7.2 - Procedural Metamemory
Figure 7.3 - Knowledge of Memory
Figure 7.6 - Regulation of Memory
Figure 7.9 - Memory Self-Efficacy
Figure 8.3 - Flavell's Cognitive Monitoring Model
Figure 8.4 - Brown's Knowledge of Cognition
Figure 8.5 - Brown's Regulation of Cognition
Figure 8.6 - Borkowski and Pressley's Good Information Processing Model
Figure 8.7 - Borkowski and Pressley's Good Information Processing Model
Figure 9.1 - Knowledge of Cognition
Figure 9.2 - Declarative Knowledge
Figure 9.3 - Procedural Knowledge
Figure 9.4 - Conditional Knowledge
Figure 9.5 - Regulation of Cognition and Executive Functioning
Figure 9.6 - Metacognitive Experiences
Figure 9.7 - Metacognitive Feelings
Figure 9.8 - Metacognitive Judgements
Figure 10.1 - Declarative Metacognitive Knowledge
Figure 10.2 - Procedural Metacognitive Knowledge
Figure 10.3 - Conditional Metacognitive Knowledge
Figure 10.4 - Regulation of Cognition or Metacognitive Skills
The Metacognition Conceptual Learning Cognitive Tool is copyright. No part of the tool in any form or by any means (including copying, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise), be modified, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, published, distributed or transmitted without the prior written permission of the author Dr Pina Tarricone.
The tool is based on work that has been published in the book The Taxonomy of Metacognition and its aim is to provide an additional resource and not to replace it.
Referencing the tool:
Tarricone, P. (2014). Metacognition conceptual learning cognitive tool. Retrieved from http://set.education.ecu.edu.au/x-development/cogtl/index.html
Referencing the book:
Tarricone, P. (2011). The taxonomy of metacognition. East Sussex, United Kingdom: Psychology Press.
Dr Pina Tarricone
PhD, MEd (AME) (Hons), MEd (IMM), Grad Dip EAME, B Ed, Dip Tch
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Centre for Schooling and Learning Technologies
School of Education
Edith Cowan University
Perth, Western Australia
Pina has a PhD in Educational/Cognitive Psychology. Her theoretical research on metacognition won a number of awards including the 2007 Edith Cowan University Research Medal. Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis, published her PhD research as a book entitled the Taxonomy of Metacognition. Her book is available in university libraries world-wide. In 2014, Pina completed a M Ed in Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation with Honours at the University of Western Australia. She developed an instrument to measure a subcategory of the Taxonomy of Metacognition. She also has a Master of Education in Interactive Multimedia and is currently a Postdoctoral Scholar in the Centre for Schooling and Learning Technologies (CSaLT) at ECU. Her interests include the theoretical analysis of complex educational psychology constructs, their measurement using Rasch methodologies and the use of technologies for assessment and testing. Pina has a background in educational assessment, testing and measurement in government and corporate education environments.
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (2007) Edith Cowan University, Australia
(University Research Medal Winner and Faculty Research Medal Winner)
Specialisation: Educational/Cognitive Psychology
MASTER OF EDUCATION IN ASSESSMENT, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION with HONOURS (2014) University of Western Australia
MASTER OF EDUCATION IN INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA (1999) Edith Cowan University, Australia
Specialisation: Interactive Multimedia
GRADUATE DIPLOMA OF EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION (2009) University of Western Australia
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (1988) Edith Cowan University, Australia (previously Western Australian College of Advanced Education)
Specialisation: Business Education and Computing
DIPLOMA OF TEACHING (1987) Edith Cowan University, Australia (previously Western Australian College of Advanced Education)
Specialisation: Business Education and Social Science
CERTIFICATE IV ASSESSMENT AND WORKPLACE TRAINING (1999)