HomeEpistemic Cognition Resources

Epistemic Cognition Resources

David Moshman


Moshman, D. (2015). Epistemic Cognition and Development: The Psychology of Justification and Truth. New York: Psychology Press.

Moshman, D. (2011).  Adolescent rationality and development: Cognition, morality, and identity, 3rd edition.  New York: Psychology Press.

Moshman Book

Journal Articles and Book Chapters

Moshman, D. (1998). Cognitive development beyond childhood. In W. Damon, (Series Ed.), D. Kuhn & R. S. Siegler (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (5th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 947-978). New York: Wiley.
Moshman, D. (2002). Developmental change in adulthood. In J. Dermick & C. Andreoletti (Eds.), Handbook of adult development (pp. 43-61). New York: Plenum Press.
Moshman, D. (2004).  From inference to reasoning: The construction of rationality.  Thinking & Reasoning, 10, 221-239.
Moshman, D. (2008).  Epistemic development and the perils of Pluto. In M. F. Shaughnessy, M. V. J. Veenman, & C. Kleyn-Kennedy (Eds.), Meta-cognition: A recent review of research, theory and perspectives (pp. 161-174).  New York: Nova Science.
Moshman, D. (2009).  The development of rationality.  In H. Siegel (Ed.), Oxford handbook of philosophy of education (pp. 145-161).  Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Moshman, D. (2012).  Epistemic cognition.  In R. J. R. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Adolescence (pp. 847-853).  New York: Springer.
Moshman, D. (2013).  Epistemic cognition and development.  In P. Barrouillet & C. Gauffroy (Eds.), The development of thinking and reasoning (pp. 13-33).   New York: Psychology Press.
Moshman, D. (2013).  Adolescent rationality.  In R. M. Lerner & J. B. Benson (Eds.), Embodiment and epigenesis: Theoretical and methodological issues in understanding the role of biology within the relational developmental system.  Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Vol. 44.  Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Moshman, D. (forthcoming).  Epistemic domains of reasoning.  In H. Markovits (Ed.), The developmental psychology of reasoning and decision-making.  New York: Psychology Press.

King and Kitchener

Kitchener, K. S. (1983). Cognition, metacognition and epistemic cognition: A three level model of cognitive processing. Human Development, 4, 222-232.
King, P. M. (1986). Formal reasoning in adults: A review and critique. In R. A. Mines & K. S. Kitchener (Eds.), Adult cognitive development: Methods and models (pp. 1-21). New York, New York: Praeger.
Kitchener, K. S., & King, P. M. (1990). The reflective judgment model: Transforming assumptions about knowing. In J. Mezirow (Ed.), Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative emancipatory learning (pp. 159-176). San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (1994). Developing reflective judgment: Understanding and promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in adolescents and adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (2002). The reflective judgment model: Twenty years of research on epistemic cognition. In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing (pp. 37-61). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Kuhn, D. (1991). The skills of argument. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Kuhn, D. (2001). How do people know? Psychological Science, 12(1), 1-8.
Kuhn, D. (2005). Education for thinking. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kuhn, D., Cheney, R., & Weinstock, M. (2000). The development of epistemological understanding. Cognitive Development, 15, 309-328.
Kuhn, D., & Weinstock, M. (2002). What is epistemological thinking and why does it matter? In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing (pp. 121-144). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Krettenauer, T. (2004). Metaethical cognition and epistemic reasoning development in adolescence. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 461–470.
Krettenauer, T. (2005). The role of epistemic cognition in adolescent identity formation: Further evidence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(3), 185-198.


Chandler, M. J. (1987). The Othello effect: Essay on the emergence and eclipse of skeptical doubt. Human Development, 30, 137–159.
Chandler, M., Boyes, M., & Ball, L. (1990). Relativism and stations of epistemic doubt. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 370–395.
Boyes, M. C., & Chandler, M. (1992). Cognitive development, epistemic doubt, and identity formation in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 737–763.
Chandler, M. J., Hallett, D., & Sokol, B. W. (2002). Competing claims about competing knowledge claims. In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing (pp. 145-168). Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum.

Hofer and Pintrich

Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (1997). The development of epistemological theories: Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning. Review of Educational Research, 67(1), 88-140.
Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (2002). Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1992). Knowing and reasoning in college: Gender-related patterns in students' intellectual development. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass.

Bendixen, L. D., & Feucht, F. C. (Eds.). (2013). Personal epistemology in the classroom: Theory, research and implications for practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mansfield, A. F., & Clinchy, B. M. (2002). Toward the integration of objectivity and subjectivity: Epistemological development from 10 to 16. New Ideas in Psychology, 20, 225–262.

Perry, W. G. (1970). Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years:  A scheme. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.